Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2022
|Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates|
|Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates||
3. Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates and assumptions include allowance for doubtful accounts, inventory reserves, deferred taxes, share-based compensation and related valuation allowances and fair value of long-lived assets. Actual results could differ from the estimates.
We have reclassified, combined or separately disclosed certain amounts in the prior years’ condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying footnotes to conform with the current period’s presentation.
Cash include cash on hand and highly liquid investments having an original maturity of three months or less.
Accounts receivable, net
Trade accounts receivable are stated at the amount the Company expects to collect and do not bear interest. The Company evaluates the collectability of accounts receivable and records a provision to the allowance for doubtful accounts based on factors including the length of time the receivables are past due, the current business environment and the Company’s historical experience. Provisions to the allowances for doubtful accounts are recorded in selling, general and administrative expenses. Account balances are charged off against the allowance when it is probable that the receivable will not be recovered. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $2 thousand as of March 31, 2022 and $4 thousand as of December 31, 2021.
Inventory and Cost of Goods Sold
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost, the value determined by the first-in, first-out method, or net realizable value. The Company evaluates inventories for excess quantities, obsolescence, and shelf-life expiration. This evaluation includes an analysis of historical sales levels by product, projections of future demand, the risk of technological or competitive obsolescence for products, general market conditions, and a review of the shelf-life expiration dates for products. These factors determine when, and if, the Company adjusts the carrying value of inventory to estimated net realizable value.
The balance is made up of raw materials, work-in-progress, and finished goods of $184 thousand, $40 thousand, and $56 thousand on March 31, 2022, respectively, and the balance was made up of raw materials, work-in-progress, and finished goods of $266 thousand, $0, and $25 thousand on December 31, 2021, respectively.
As a contract manufacturer, the Company builds its products based on customer orders and immediately ships the products upon completion of the production process.
The “Cost of goods sold” line item in the consolidated statements of income is comprised of the book value of inventory sold to customers during the reporting period. When circumstances dictate that we use net realizable value as the basis for recording inventory, we base our estimates on expected future selling prices less expected disposal costs.
Research and Development
Our research and development activities focus on new and innovative products designed to support revenue growth. Research and development expenses consist primarily of contracted development and testing efforts associated with development of products.
Shipping and Handling Revenue and Expense
Shipping and handling revenue and expense are included in our consolidated statements of operations in Revenue, net. This is primarily through shipping fees incurred in the Amazon marketplace.
Property and equipment, net
Property and equipment is recorded at historical cost, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is provided over the assets’ useful lives on a straight-line basis. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or lease terms. Repairs and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred.
Management periodically assesses the estimated useful life over which assets are depreciated or amortized. If the analysis warrants a change in the estimated useful life of property and equipment, management will reduce the estimated useful life and depreciate or amortize the carrying value prospectively over the shorter remaining useful life.
The carrying amounts of assets sold or retired and the related accumulated depreciation are eliminated in the period of disposal and the resulting gains and losses are included in the results of operations during the same period.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
In applying the acquisition method of accounting, amounts assigned to identifiable assets and liabilities acquired were based on estimated fair values as of the date of acquisition, with the remainder recorded as goodwill. Identifiable intangible assets are initially recorded at fair value using generally accepted valuation methods appropriate for the type of intangible asset. Identifiable intangible assets with definite lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives and are reviewed for impairment if indicators of impairment arise. Intangible assets with indefinite lives are tested for impairment within one year of acquisitions or annually as of December 31, and whenever indicators of impairment exist. The fair value of intangible assets are compared with their carrying values, and an impairment loss would be recognized for the amount by which a carrying amount exceeds its fair value.
The Company performed the annual assessment and concluded it is more likely than not that the fair value exceeds the carrying value.
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
Prepaid expenses and other current assets is recorded at historical cost and is primarily made up of $25 thousand and $23 thousand of prepaid insurance, and $141 thousand and $54 thousand general prepaid expenses and other current assets as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
Other assets is recorded at historical costs, and as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the balance is entirely made up of spare parts for manufacturing equipment. Other assets are stated at cost and are not subject to depreciation, until such time that they are placed into service and the part that is being replaced is disposed.
Fair value measurements
The Company utilizes the fair value hierarchy to apply fair value measurements. The fair value hierarchy is based on inputs to valuation techniques that are used to measure fair values that are either observable or unobservable. Observable inputs reflect assumptions market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability based on market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect a reporting entity’s pricing based upon its own market assumptions. The basis for fair value measurements for each level within the hierarchy is described below:
Level 1 — Quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.
Level 2 — Quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active; or model-derived valuations whose inputs are observable or whose significant value drivers are observable.
Level 3 — Valuations derived from valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs to the valuation model are unobservable.
The Company considers the carrying amounts of its financial instruments (cash, accounts receivable and accounts payable, notes payable and convertible notes payable) in the balance sheet to approximate fair value because of the short-term or highly liquid nature of these financial instruments.
Warrants to purchase common stock were issued in connection with equity financing raises, which occurred on September 2, 2021, March 11, 2021, February 3, 2021, December 24, 2020, March 18, 2020, September 10, 2019 and November 6, 2019. The fair values of the warrants are estimated as of the date of issuance and again at each period end using a Black-Scholes option valuation model. At issuance, the fair value of the warrant is recognized as an equity issuance cost within additional paid-in-capital. Fair value adjustments to the warrant liability are recognized in other income (expense) in the statements of operations.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). The core principle of ASC 606 requires that an entity recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASC 606 defines a five-step process to achieve this core principle and, in doing so, it is possible more judgment and estimates may be required within the revenue recognition process than required under existing accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) including identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation. The Company adopted ASC 606 for all applicable contracts using the modified retrospective method, which would have required a cumulative-effect adjustment, if any, as of the date of adoption. The adoption of ASC 606 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements as of the date of adoption. As a result, a cumulative-effect adjustment was not required.
The Company recognizes revenue predominately from one type of revenue, contract manufacturing. Revenue from contract manufacturing is recognized at the point where the customer obtains control of the goods and the Company satisfies its performance obligation, which generally is at the time the customer receives the product.
The Company’s customers consist of other life sciences companies and revenues are concentrated in the United States. Payment terms vary by the type and location of customer and may differ by jurisdiction and customer but payment is generally required in a term ranging from 30 to 60 days from date of shipment.
Estimates for product returns, allowances and discounts are recorded as a reduction of revenue and are established at the time of sale. Returns are estimated through a comparison of historical return data and are determined for each product and adjusted for known or expected changes in the marketplace specific to each product, when appropriate. Historically, sales return provisions have not been material. Amounts accrued for sales allowances and discounts are based on estimates of amounts that are expected to be claimed on the related sales and are based on historical data. Payments for allowances and discounts have historically been immaterial.
Disaggregated revenue by sales type:
As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2022, the Company did not have any contract assets or contract liabilities from contracts with customers. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, there were no remaining performance obligations that the Company had not satisfied.
On August 28, 2019, the Company adopted the 2019 Long-Term Incentive Plan (the “2019 Plan”). See Note 10 below for further details regarding the 2019 Plan.
The 2019 Plan provides certain employees, contractors, and outside directors with share-based compensation in the form of incentive stock options, nonqualified stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, restricted stock units, performance awards, dividend equivalent rights and other awards. The fair values of incentive stock option award grants are estimated as of the date of grant using a Black-Scholes option valuation model. Compensation expense is recognized in the statements of operations on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period required to obtain full vesting. Forfeitures are accounted for when they occur.
In June 2018, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718) - Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting. These amendments expand the scope of Topic 718, Compensation - Stock Compensation, to include share-based payments issued to nonemployees for goods or services. Consequently, the accounting for share-based payments to nonemployees and employees will be substantially aligned. This new standard is effective for the Company on January 1, 2020. The Company early adopted this new standard in the third quarter of 2019 and it did not have material impact to its consolidated financial statements.
Income taxes are accounted for using an asset and liability approach that requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities at the applicable tax rates. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates.
ASC 842 requires recognition of leases on the consolidated balance sheets as right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and lease liabilities. ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use underlying assets for the lease terms and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the leases. Operating lease ROU assets and operating lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value and future minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement date. As the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company used its estimated incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. A number of the lease agreements contain options to renew and options to terminate the leases early. The lease term used to calculate ROU assets and lease liabilities only includes renewal and termination options that are deemed reasonably certain to be exercised.
The Company recognized lease liabilities, with corresponding ROU assets, based on the present value of unpaid lease payments for existing operating leases longer than twelve months. The ROU assets were adjusted per ASC 842 transition guidance for existing lease-related balances of accrued and prepaid rent, and unamortized lease incentives provided by lessors. Operating lease cost is recognized as a single lease cost on a straight-line basis over the lease term and is recorded in selling, general and administrative expenses. Variable lease payments for common area maintenance, property taxes and other operating expenses are recognized as expense in the period when the changes in facts and circumstances on which the variable lease payments are based occur. The Company has elected not to separate lease and non-lease components for all property leases for the purposes of calculating ROU assets and lease liabilities.
The Company operates in one business segment as a contract manufacturer of aqueous polymer hydrogels. As a result, the Company’s operations are a single reportable segment, which is consistent with the Company’s internal management reporting.
Comprehensive loss consists of net loss and changes in equity during a period from transactions and other equity and circumstances generated from non-owner sources. The Company’s net loss equals comprehensive loss for all periods presented,
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, or other standard setting bodies and adopted by us as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on our financial position or results of operations upon adoption.
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. ASU 2016-13 significantly changes the impairment model for most financial assets and certain other instruments. ASU 2016-13 will require immediate recognition of estimated credit losses expected to occur over the remaining life of many financial assets, which will generally result in earlier recognition of allowances for credit losses on loans and other financial instruments. ASU 2016-13 is effective for the Company's fiscal year beginning March 1, 2023 and subsequent interim periods. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of ASU 2016-13 will have on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. ASU 2017-04 simplifies the manner in which an entity is required to test goodwill for impairment by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Under the amendments in ASU 2017-04, an entity should (1) perform its annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, and (2) recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value, with the understanding that the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. Additionally, ASU 2017-04 requires any reporting unit with a zero or negative carrying amount to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. We adopted ASU 2017-04 effective March 1, 2020 (the first quarter of our 2021 fiscal year).
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which simplifies the accounting for income taxes. This guidance will be effective for entities for the fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020 on a prospective basis, with early adoption permitted. We will adopt ASU 2019-12 effective March 1, 2021 and do not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef